In some cases competitive tactics appear to produce the desired effect whereas in others they provoke retaliation. Pruitt (1981) suggests that the reaction of the other party to the use of competitive tactics is influenced by the ‘heaviness’ of the bargainer’s efforts to influence. Heaviness, in this context, refers to the extent to which negotiators put pressure on the other to the point of creating a feeling of resentment. Making ‘if—then’ promises or attempting to influence the other by improving the relationship normally does not produce a feeling of resentment. 
Making threats and imposing time pressures, on the other hand, are examples of tactics that are more likely to generate such feelings. When a party regards the other’s behaviour as heavyhanded, the probability that he will offer resistance is increased. This resistance is most likely to develop into active retaliation when the pressured party judges her bargaining power to be equal to or greater than the other’s. Retaliation is even more likely when a negotiator is aware of being observed by his constituents. 

There is also evidence that where the resentment is very strongly felt some people will be prepared to retaliate even when they believe that their chances of winning are small or non-existent. They would prefer to go down fighting rather than let the other win. In these circumstances the win—lose competitive relationship deteriorates into one that can best be described as lose-lose. 

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