Efficiency of resilience strategies
Studies of children and adolescents have found that both individual characteristics and environmental factors may be negatively related to mental health problems (Torsheim, Aaroe, & Wold, 2001; Tusaie, Puskar, & Sereika, 2007). These associations indicate that self-esteem, peer support, parent support, and social participation are important to children’s mental health status. 
Moreover, in longitudinal studies, the development of adolescent depression has been found to be predicted by low levels in self-esteem and social support (Torsheim et al., 2001; Tusaie et al., 2007). Further research (Broderick & Korteland, 2002; Smith & Carlson, 1997) suggests that the efficiency of resilience strategies is significantly influenced by the individual’s perceived autonomy in coping

with risk factors. Thus, more positive adjustment was shown when efficacy and autonomy was employed to deal with risk factors which were perceived to be controllable. In addition, seeking support in relation to uncontrollable risks was associated with fewer mental health problems.
Efficiency of resilience strategies

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